Year 8 Curriculum

Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices and the zero index.

Carry out the four operations with rational numbers and integers, using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies.

Investigate terminating and recurring decimals.

Investigate the concept of irrational numbers.

Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases, with and without digital technologies.

Solve problems involving profit and loss, with and without digital technologies.

Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions.

Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors.

Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations.

Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital technologies.

Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution.

Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another.

Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms, trapeziums, rhombuses and kites.

Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving circumference and area.

Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume.

Solve problems involving duration, including using 12­ and 24­hour time within a single time zone.

Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations.

Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles.

Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles and angle properties, and solve related numerical problems using reasoning.

Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems.

Describe events using language of ‘at least’, exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and ‘and’.

Represent events in two­way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems.

Investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling and observation.

Explore the practicalities and implications of obtaining data through sampling using a variety of investigative processes.

Explore the variation of means and proportions of random samples drawn from the same population.

Investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the mean and median.

End of year 8 achievement standard

Number and Algebra

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.

Measurement and Geometry

Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24­hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.

Statistics and Probability

Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

*Extracted from referencing the Victorian Essential Learning Standards within the Australian Curriculum.